Bridging the Macro-micro Divide: A Qualitative Meta-synthesis on the Perspectives and Experiences of Health Care Providers on the Extramedical Use and Diversion of Buprenorphine
Kankanam Gamage K, Tejpar S, Majid U, Dixon K, Sabioni P, Sud A. Bridging the Macro-micro Divide: A Qualitative Meta-synthesis on the Perspectives and Experiences of Health Care Providers on the Extramedical Use and Diversion of Buprenorphine. J Addict Med. 2022 Aug. doi: 10.1097/ADM.0000000000001020.
Opioid agonist therapy using buprenorphine is one of the most effective treatments for opioid use disorder. However, concerns regarding its extramedical use and diversion, such as adverse patient outcomes and damage to the legitimacy of addictions practice, are persistent. The aim of this review is to synthesize the perspectives and experiences of health care providers around the extramedical use of buprenorphine.
A qualitative meta-synthesis was conducted based on a systematic search of 8 databases. All primary qualitative and mixed-methods studies relating to the views of health care providers on the extramedical use of buprenorphine were included. A qualitative analysis informed by the constant comparative method was conducted, using NVivo for data management.
Sixteen studies were included in this review. Findings were organizedunder 2 key themes: (1) Harm-producing versus harm-reducing effects of extramedical buprenorphine use and (2) driving forces of and responses to extramedical buprenorphine use.
The studies included in our review identified a disconnect—health care providers noted that macro, health care system–level challenges drove extramedical use whereas the recommended solutions for prevention and management were primarily aimed at the micro, individual level. This study emphasizes the critical role that health care providers can play, in partnership with patients, in informing appropriate policies and health care system desig